TetraDENSITY is a database that includes georeferenced population density estimates of terrestrial vertebrate species worldwide. It was meant to be a source for macroecological research and biodiversity conservation analyses, but also to be a reference database for population density estimates for field studies.
The database was originally described and presented in the publication:
Santini L., Isaac N.J.B., Ficetola G.F. 2018. TetraDENSITY: a database of population density estimates in terrestrial vertebrates. Global Ecology and Biogeography 27(7): 787-791
TetraDENSITY v.1.0 is available at
When published, the database included >18,000 estimates for 2100 species from ~950 studies. Since then, the database kept growing integrating additional data, and it now includes data for >2600 species, and ~22,000 estimates from >1200 studies.
We are currently researching on these data and we plan to release an updated version of the dataset in the future. In the meanwhile, if you are interested in the data for a specific project, please get in contact.
Papers in which the database has been used:
Santini et al. (In preparation)
Amenth J. et al. (In preparation)
Game E. et al. (In preparation)
Broekman et al. (In preparation)
Ascensão et al. (In preparation)
Santini L., Benítez-López A., Dormann C.F., Huijbregts M.A.J. Predictive modelling of population density for terrestrial mammal species. UNDER REVISION
Santini L., Isaac N. (2020) Rapid Anthropocene realignment of allometric scaling rules. Ecology Letters, doi: 10.1111/ELE.13743
Wang Y.X.G., Matson K.D., Santini L., Visconti P., Hilbers J.P., Huijbregts M.A.J., Xu Y., Prins H.H.T., Allen T., Huang Z.Y.X., de Boer W.F. Mammal assemblage composition predicts global patterns in emerging disease risk. (Under Revision)
Gonzalez-Suarez M., Gonzalez-Voyer A., von Hardenberg A., Santini L. 2020. The role of brain size on population density in mammals. Journal of Animal Ecology 90(3): 653-661
Tucker M, Santini L., Carbone C., Mueller T. 2020. Mammal population densities at a global scale are higher in human-modified areas. Ecography, doi: 10.1111/ecog.05126
Skyes L., Santini L., Etard A., Newbold T. Different forms of rarity interact to determine species’ responses to land use. Conservation Biology doi: doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13419
Santini L., Butchart S.H.M., Rondinini C., Benítez-López A., Hilbers J.P., Schipper A., Cengic M., Tobias J.A., Huijbregts M.A.J. 2019. Applying habitat and population density models to land cover time series to inform IUCN Red List assessments. Conservation Biology 33(5): 1084–1093
Santini L., Pironon S., Maiorano L., Thuiller W. 2019. Addressing common pitfalls does not provide more support to geographical and ecological abundant-centre hypotheses. Ecography 42(4): 696-705
Santini L., Isaac N.J.B., Maiorano L., Ficetola G.F., Huijbregts M.A.J., Carbone C., Thuiller W. 2018. Global drivers of population abundance in terrestrial vertebrates. Global Ecology and Biogeography 27(8): 968-979