TetraDENSITY database

TetraDENSITY is a database that includes georeferenced population density estimates of terrestrial vertebrate species worldwide. It was meant to be a source for macroecological research and biodiversity conservation analyses, but also to be a reference database for population density estimates for field studies.

The database was originally described and presented in the publication

Santini L., Isaac N.J.B., Ficetola G.F. 2018. TetraDENSITY: a database of population density estimates in terrestrial vertebrates. Global Ecology and Biogeography 27(7): 787-791

TetraDENSITY v.1.0 is available at


When published, the database included >18,000 estimates for 2100 species from ~950 studies. Since then, the database kept growing integrating additional data, and it now includes data for >2600 species, and ~22,000 estimates from >1200 studies.

I am currently researching on these data and I plan to release an updated version of the dataset in the future. In the meanwhile, if you are interested in the data for a specific project, please get in contact.


TemporalCoverage copy

Table TetraDENSITY

Papers in which the database has been used:

Amenth J. et al. (In preparation)

Game E. et al. (In preparation)

Tucker M., Santini L., Carbone C., Mueller T. Mammal population densities are higher in areas of moderate human footprint. (Under revision)

Wang Y.X.G., Matson K.D., Santini L., Visconti P., Hilbers J.P., Huijbregts M.A.J., Xu Y., Prins H.H.T., Allen T., Huang Z.Y.X., de Boer W.F. Mammal assemblage composition predicts global patterns in emerging disease risk. (Under Revision)

Gonzalez-Suarez M., Gonzalez-Voyer A., von Hardenberg A., Santini L. The role of brain size on population density in mammals. (Under revision)

Skyes L., Santini L., Etard A., Newbold T. Different forms of rarity interact to determine species’ responses to land use. Conservation Biology. (Accepted)

Santini L., Butchart S.H.M., Rondinini C., Benítez-López A., Hilbers J.P., Schipper A., Cengic M., Tobias J.A., Huijbregts M.A.J. 2019. Applying habitat and population density models to land cover time series to inform IUCN Red List assessments. Conservation Biology. doi: 10.1111/cobi.13279

Santini L., Pironon S., Maiorano L., Thuiller W. 2019. Addressing common pitfalls does not provide more support to geographical and ecological abundant-centre hypotheses. Ecography 42(4): 696-705

Santini L., Isaac N.J.B., Maiorano L., Ficetola G.F., Huijbregts M.A.J., Carbone C., Thuiller W. 2018. Global drivers of population abundance in terrestrial vertebrates. Global Ecology and Biogeography 27(8): 968-979